assignment代写-市场价格的设定因素

本文讲的是市场价格的设定因素,在最初的评估中,可以说基于价格的工具在这里是适用的。许多家庭用水可能会被征收某种形式的水税。在工厂用水或用于肉类和牲畜饲养的情况下,如McQuarrie地区,基于价格的MBI是适用的。因此,在MBI价格下,对牲畜饲养征收土地税和对木材工业征收森林砍伐税是适当的。Ecorys(2011)提出的荷兰等国家的水税项目在这里也适用。本篇assignment代写文章由美国论文通AssignmentPass辅导网整理,供大家参考阅读。

At first assessment, it could be said that the price based instrument is applicable here. Much of the domestic use could have some form of water taxation applied on them. In the case of water used in factories or for meat and livestock breeding as in the case of the McQuarrie area, a price based MBI is applicable. Land taxation for livestock breeding and deforestation for wood industries in the case of both catchment areas would hence be appropriate under price MBI. Water taxation projects in countries like Netherland as presented by Ecorys (2011) would be applicable here.
In addition, the price element can be introduced in the form of subsidies. Industries such as forest based ones and livestock ones observed in the catchment area can be brought under a subsidy program. The subsidy program for environmental protections would aim at better economic use of water (Roper and Marshall, 1979; Hardie and Bobbi, 2017). This can ensure that impact to water is reduced considerably. Economic use of water can ensure quality by restraining quantity (Raheem and Morenikeji, 2010). This is the appropriate instrument for the catchment area, as people in catchment area already make use of ecosystem services for their economic wellbeing.
Consider the different stakeholders and how they would be impacted as present in the following situations.
Meat industries, such as sheep meat as observed in Macquarie catchment, will pay needed water tax for using so much amount of water. They will pay penalties for overuse of water. They will pay penalty if they release more effluents than what is allowed. They will be given subsidies by the government when they can show they have undertaken environmental friendly ways to production and distributions.
Forest based industries as observed in both catchment areas will pay land tax. They will pay penalty taxation based on any externalities they cause outside permissible limits.
Agriculturalists as seen in the case of the South Esk Catchment must practice crop rotation and for this, they can be payed subsidies. Once again, they will pay water tax or land tax as applicable.

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