代写留学生论文:社会整合对人们职业选择的影响

代写留学生论文:社会整合对人们职业选择的影响

威利斯的研究对象为12名非学术性白人工人阶级未成年人,年龄在15岁左右。他们还有一年的时间完成学业。这项研究的参与者属于一个工业城镇“哈默镇”。威利斯观察了参与者。对参与者所表现出的行为有消极的观察,对课堂活动有积极的参与。参加者来自不同的社会经济背景。在低收入工人阶级中,父母和教师支持他们的生活方式(Willis, 1977)。他们对自己的工作有一种自豪感,经常贬低其他职业。直接的家庭环境和学校触动了工人阶级文化的自豪感。有一种反学校的文化是为学生创造的。由此产生了一种观念,即来自这些背景的学生总是被推向蓝领工作。从威利斯的研究结果出发,探讨了社会整合对人们职业选择的影响、性别认同与父权影响以及马克思主义意识形态。

代写留学生论文:社会整合对人们职业选择的影响

威利斯采用了批判人种学的方法来理解人们行为的原因。人民的行动源于他们的意识形态和观念。由于人们来自不同的社会,这种观念上的差异是不可避免的。人们根据自己的知识和习惯的道德体系做出决定。威利斯将这种意识形态称为“游戏领域”。在这个范例中,有两个概念被发现是普遍存在的。这是渗透和限制的概念(Willis, 1977)。在较低的经济群体中,人们有一种天生的选择体力劳动道路的压力。人们认为他们的职业是一项积极的工作,而其他的职业则是贬低。渗透与局限是人与社会经济群体发展偏好的两种意识形态。渗透是一种意识形态,它被用来激发更集体主义的冲动(Willis, 1977)。人民对他人的权利更加适应。除此之外,孩子们从很小的时候就被要求做繁重的工作。他们被迫从事体力劳动,周围的人告诉他们,除了体力劳动,他们别无所长。

代写留学生论文:社会整合对人们职业选择的影响

The research of Willis was conducted with 12 non-academic, white, working class minors, and aged around 15. They had one more year to complete their schooling. The participants of the study belong to an industrial town ‘Hammertown’. Willis observed the participants. There was passive observation of the actions exhibited by the participants and active participation in the class activities. The participants were from different socio economic backgrounds. It was stated that in the lower income working class, parents and the teachers supported their lifestyle (Willis, 1977). There was a sense of pride in their work and they often demeaned other profession. The immediate familial surroundings and the schools nudged the pride of the working-class culture. There was a counter-school culture that was created for the students. An ideology was created that the students from these backgrounds were invariably nudged towards the blue-collar jobs. From the findings of Willis, the impact of social conformity in the vocation choice of the people, the gendered identity along with patriarchal impacts and the Marxists ideology have been discussed.

代写留学生论文:社会整合对人们职业选择的影响

Willis adopts a critical ethnographic’ methodology to understand the reasons for the behaviour of the people. The actions of the people stem from their ideology and perceived notions. As people come from different societies, this difference in perception is inevitable. The people form decisions based on their knowledge and the system of morality that they are used to. Willis attributes this ideology as ‘field of play’. In this paradigm, there are two concepts that are found to be prevalent. It is the penetration and limitation concept (Willis, 1977). There is an innate pressure for the people to choose the path of manual labour in the lower economic group. The people consider their profession to be a positive work and other profession to be demeaning. Penetration and limitations are the two ideologies that make the person and the socio-economic group develop preference. Penetration is the ideology that is used to provoke impulses that are more collectivistic (Willis, 1977). The people are more attuned towards the rights of other people. Apart from this, the lads are made to do grunt work from a very early age. They are forced into manual labour and are told by the people around them that they cannot amount to anything more than manual labour.