此外，当一个人行动时，他自己的推理，无论它是发达还是不发达，总是在指导他的推理权威行动(Lerner, 1965)。推理有时甚至无法追溯到行为人，但它总是在所有行为中发挥作用(Rips, 1994)，无论它是什么，无论它是多么无关紧要，多么微小。因此，在所有的行为背后都有理性在起作用，所以世上不可能没有理性的行为，因为所有的行为都会产生某种效果，而行为人总是对行为有一种渴望的效果，这种效果可以被称为潜在的原因和行为的原因。
According to Ayer, when one acts under the influence of compulsive neurosis, or when one is compelled to act, it is not a free act. In contrast, when one acts without the conditions influencing the action such a cause may be irrelevant. And when one acts with a special cause that is said to be acting non-freely and when one acts with a simple cause whatsoever it is said to be acting freely.
Every action has an underlying cause, which is either perceptible or imperceptible to the senses (Wind, 2001). Hence, if there was no cause for anyone to act, why would anyone even act even meagrely? For example, why would anyone get up in the morning and bath? Ayer would see it as a free act, but it is absolutely connected to a cause and that one is inclined to keep oneself clean and that is why one takes a bath. The cause, according to Ayer may be irrelevant. He may consider the act of bathing as being acting freely, but he does not regard the hidden cause as the reason for the action.
In addition, when one acts, one’s own reasoning, however well-developed or poorly developed it may be, is always at work which guides one’s reasoning authority to act (Lerner, 1965). The reasoning sometimes may not even be traceable to the actor, but it is always playing a role in all acts (Rips, 1994), whatsoever it may be and howsoever irrelevant and small it may be. Thus, there is reason acting behind all actions, so there can never be an act without reason on earth because all acts give some effect, and the actor always has a desired effect of the action that can be termed as the underlying reason and the cause of the action.
Thus, Ayer’s argument is refuted because all actions are never without their associated cause. If that be so as Ayer says then we would have to go trace back the first uncaused cause of all which gave rise to all life on earth. Additionally, one’s internal reasoning is an inseparable part of one’s action and all actions are intended to meet an end and not for the sake of mere action. Even a retarded person acting without a cause has a cause of his unreasoning not in place and psychology being disturbed, so Ayer’s claims are refuted with these arguments.