留学论文代写:自由行为和非自由行为

留学论文代写:自由行为和非自由行为

根据艾耶尔的说法,当一个人在强迫性神经症的影响下行动,或者当一个人被迫行动时,这不是一种自由的行为。相反,当一个人的行为不受影响的条件,这样的原因可能是无关紧要的。当一个人的行为有一种特殊的原因,这被称为非自由行为,当一个人的行为有一种简单的原因,这被称为自由行为。

每一个行为都有一个潜在的原因,它要么是可以感知的,要么是感觉不到的(Wind, 2001)。因此,如果没有理由让任何人采取行动,为什么有人会采取甚至是卑鄙的行动?例如,为什么有人早上起来洗澡?艾耶尔认为这是一种自由行为,但它绝对与一种原因有关,那就是一个人想要保持自己清洁,这就是为什么他要洗澡。据艾耶尔说,原因可能无关紧要。他可能认为沐浴的行为是自由的行为,但他不认为隐藏的原因是行动的原因。

此外,当一个人行动时,他自己的推理,无论它是发达还是不发达,总是在指导他的推理权威行动(Lerner, 1965)。推理有时甚至无法追溯到行为人,但它总是在所有行为中发挥作用(Rips, 1994),无论它是什么,无论它是多么无关紧要,多么微小。因此,在所有的行为背后都有理性在起作用,所以世上不可能没有理性的行为,因为所有的行为都会产生某种效果,而行为人总是对行为有一种渴望的效果,这种效果可以被称为潜在的原因和行为的原因。

留学论文代写:自由行为和非自由行为

因此,艾耶尔的论点被驳倒了,因为所有的行为都有其相关的原因。如果像艾耶尔所说的那样,那么我们就必须追溯地球上所有生命起源的第一个无因原因。此外,一个人的内在推理是其行为不可分割的一部分,所有的行为都是为了达到目的,而不仅仅是为了行动。即使是一个没有原因的弱智者,他的非理性行为也是有原因的,他的心理也会受到干扰,所以艾耶尔的主张被这些论点驳倒了。

留学论文代写:自由行为和非自由行为

According to Ayer, when one acts under the influence of compulsive neurosis, or when one is compelled to act, it is not a free act. In contrast, when one acts without the conditions influencing the action such a cause may be irrelevant. And when one acts with a special cause that is said to be acting non-freely and when one acts with a simple cause whatsoever it is said to be acting freely.

Every action has an underlying cause, which is either perceptible or imperceptible to the senses (Wind, 2001). Hence, if there was no cause for anyone to act, why would anyone even act even meagrely? For example, why would anyone get up in the morning and bath? Ayer would see it as a free act, but it is absolutely connected to a cause and that one is inclined to keep oneself clean and that is why one takes a bath. The cause, according to Ayer may be irrelevant. He may consider the act of bathing as being acting freely, but he does not regard the hidden cause as the reason for the action.

In addition, when one acts, one’s own reasoning, however well-developed or poorly developed it may be, is always at work which guides one’s reasoning authority to act (Lerner, 1965). The reasoning sometimes may not even be traceable to the actor, but it is always playing a role in all acts (Rips, 1994), whatsoever it may be and howsoever irrelevant and small it may be. Thus, there is reason acting behind all actions, so there can never be an act without reason on earth because all acts give some effect, and the actor always has a desired effect of the action that can be termed as the underlying reason and the cause of the action.

留学论文代写:自由行为和非自由行为

Thus, Ayer’s argument is refuted because all actions are never without their associated cause. If that be so as Ayer says then we would have to go trace back the first uncaused cause of all which gave rise to all life on earth. Additionally, one’s internal reasoning is an inseparable part of one’s action and all actions are intended to meet an end and not for the sake of mere action. Even a retarded person acting without a cause has a cause of his unreasoning not in place and psychology being disturbed, so Ayer’s claims are refuted with these arguments.