留学申请文书:地理想象力

留学申请文书:地理想象力

地理想象力的概念最终演变自赛义德的著作。这部作品专门批评东方主义。想象不是用来指“捏造的”或“虚假的”考虑,而是指可感知的考虑。它指的是由特定的话语、文本或图像所建立的对空间的感知,就像围绕整个东方的各个阶段一样。这或多或少被认为是社会建构主义的一个来源,与本尼迪克特·安德森(Benedict Anderson)的想象社区概念相当。赛义德的东方学概念与当代历史上的每一个动荡的动态联系在一起(Frank, 2009)。东方主义通常指的是东方的描述和感知被西方居高临下。尤其是在儒家和伊斯兰国家。东方主义被认为是后殖民主义研究的基石。无论是在国内还是在城市和地区,都存在着想象中的地理现象。尽管东方学具有广泛的影响和地域想象的范围,但它的整体潜在过程似乎是散乱的。因此,主导西方社会之间存在正常化(Said, 2000)。从这个意义上说,东方主义可能在音乐、文学、电影和艺术等文化文本中得到强化。或多或少,有流行的往往是向后和一维的建设。

留学申请文书:地理想象力

赛义德深受米歇尔·福柯哲学的影响,他阐述了知识与权力之间错综复杂的关系。赛义德确立了描述和权力之间的紧密关系。权力被认为有权客观化想象中的事物(Haldrup et al., 2006)。因此,想象中的地理环境大多被认为是建立在传说和神话的基础上,是对其他怪物的描述。欧洲可以被认为是能言善辩和强大的,而亚洲似乎是遥远和失败的。反恐战争提供了在赛义德理论中不断揭示的类似地理想象的背景。根据这一点,有人声称对伊斯兰世界的描绘是不文明的,并被贴上失败和落后的标签。从想象的角度来看,这往往是正当的军事干预考虑在伊拉克和阿富汗(Frank, 2009)。赛义德说,对中世纪伊斯兰教在欧洲的出现,反应似乎是防御性和保守的。然而,有人认为,地缘政治知识的形成源于想象的地理。

留学申请文书:地理想象力

The concept of geographical imaginations has ended up evolving out of the work done by Said. This work specifically focused on critiquing Orientalism. Imagination is utilized not for the reference of “made up” or “false” considerations, but instead there is reference of perceived considerations. It is referred to as the perception of space established by specific discourses, texts or images, as per stages confining the entire East. This is more or less considered as a source of social constructionism on par with the concept of imagined communities by Benedict Anderson. The notion of Orientalism by Said is attached with each and every tumultuous dynamic of contemporary history (Frank, 2009). Orientalism is often the reference of Eastern depictions and perceptions being patronized by the West. This is especially across Confucian and Islamic states. There has been labelling of Orientalism as the cornerstone of postcolonial researches. Irrespective of being constructed nationally, there is domestic occurrence of imagined geographic across nations and locally within cities and regions. Irrespective of the broad affect and scope of Orientalism with geographic imagination, the overall underlying process of othering appears to be discursive. Hence, there is normalization across dominating western societies (Said, 2000). In this sense, there might be reinforcement of Orientalism in texts of culture such as music, literature, film and art. More or less, there is prevalence of often backwards and one dimensional construction.

留学申请文书:地理想象力

Said was highly affected by the philosophies of Michel Foucault, stating the intertwined relationship between knowledge and power. Said established the idea about a strong relationship between descriptions and power. Power is considered to have the right of objectifying the ones being imagined (Haldrup et al., 2006). Hence, imagined geographies are considered as mostly set in accordance with legend and myth, with the depiction of monstrous others. Europe can be identified as articulate and powerful, while Asia appears to be distant and defeated. The war on terror provides the context of similar geographical imagination continuously uncovered in the theory of Said. It has been claimed under this that the portrayal of Islamic world is uncivilized, and labelled as failing and backward. From the perspective of imagination, this tends to be justifying the military intervention considered in Iraq and Afghanistan (Frank, 2009). Said stated that on the appearance of Islam in Europe during the middle age period, the response appeared to be defensive and conservative. However, it is argued that there is formation of geopolitical knowledge out of imagined geography.