论文抄袭:物质文化的根源与文化符号学

论文抄袭:物质文化的根源与文化符号学

“社会是一组个体。它的结构由一组个体决定,这些个体通过符号过程有规律地连接在一起。这些群体就是我们通常所说的“机构”(波斯纳,2003,第382页)。

从上面的陈述可以理解,社会及其物质文化是由个人创造的制度所决定的。

物质文化是用来了解特定文化的物质证据。这是一个跨学科的领域,用来理解人和事物之间的互动。从这一分析中,可以看出人类学和社会交往的本质。物质文化是以任何有形物体的形式来描述的(Goldhill, 2011)。社会某些阶层的物质文化和文化实践是不同文化背景的人如何处理这些问题的反映。

失去亲人和社会对死亡的反应反映了每个社会的物质文化(Day, 2011)。跨文化的人们必须处理的核心问题之一是失去亲人(布迪厄,2000)。这些家庭试图效仿并相信,即使在他们死后,这些人仍然存在。人们在其特定文化中所扮演的角色是不同的,尽管如此,希望所爱之人继续生活的核心理念仍然存在。

弗洛伊德提出了死亡背后最重要的象征和理论之一。要理解弗洛伊德的意识形态,就必须理解死亡的含义。

论文抄袭:物质文化的根源与文化符号学

弗洛伊德论死亡驱力

弗洛伊德说,所有人都有本能,也被称为Triebe。这是一种与生俱来的欲望,存在于所有人的内心深处。这种原始本能是刺激的一种形式,来自于发生在身体中的刺激源。它被发现在一个高恒定的力量下运作,主体无法逃脱外部刺激(弗洛伊德,2015)。人的本能来自于本源。源被发现是在体内的兴奋,并采取了努力消除这种兴奋。

根据弗洛伊德的理论,生活是关于处理寻求最大满足的内在冲突,同时减少罪恶感或惩罚。厄洛斯被认为是存在于每个个体身上的本能。厄洛斯的概念是自我保护。这是维持生命所必需的基本条件。Thanatos是厄洛斯的对立面,它试图把一个人推向无生命的阶段(弗洛伊德,2015)。弗洛伊德认为,人类有一种自我毁灭的内在欲望,往往想要走向灭绝阶段。在这种灭那托斯的本能中,人们寻求达到无生命的阶段。这是一种自我毁灭的情绪。人们也有重复旧习惯的欲望(弗洛伊德,2015)。这可能是破坏性的,也可能是为了自我保护。其中一个习惯就是固定。

论文抄袭:物质文化的根源与文化符号学

“A society is a set of individuals. Its structure is determined by the groups of individuals who are regularly connected by sign processes. These groups are what we usually call “institutions” (Posner, 2003, p. 382).

From the statement above, it can be understood that the society and its material culture is determined by the institutions that have been created by the individuals.

Material culture is the physical evidence that is used to understand about a particular culture. They are an interdisciplinary field that is used to understand the interactions between people and things. From this analysis the anthropological and the social interactions can be deciphered. Material culture is depicted in the form of any tangible objects (Goldhill, 2011). The material culture and the cultural practices of certain sections of the society is a reflection as to how the people from the different cultures deal with the issues.

The loss of loved ones and society reaction towards death when such situation occurs reflects on material culture of each society (Day, 2011). One of the central issues that the people across the culture have to deal with is the loss of the loved ones (Bourdieu, 2000). The families try to emulate and believe that the people continue to exits even after their death. The role of how the people deal in their specific cultures is different nevertheless central notion of hoping the loved ones live continues to exist.

One of the most important symbolizations and theories behind death has been put forward by Freud. It is imperative to understand the ideology by Freud to understand the implications of death.

论文抄袭:物质文化的根源与文化符号学

Freud on Death Drive

Freud states that all people have instincts also known as Triebe. This is an innate desire that is found embedded in all the people. This primal instinct is a form of stimulus and is arises from the source of stimulation that occurs in the body. It is found to operate at a high constant force and the subject cannot escape from the external stimulus (Freud, 2015). The instinct of the people is derived from the source. The source is found to be excitation in the body and there are efforts taken to remove that excitation.

According to Freud, life is about dealing with the internal conflict that seeks to maximize gratification while reducing guilt or punishments. Eros is considered as the instinct that is found to exist in each individual. The notion of eros is self-preservation. It is the primal requirements that are needed to preserve life. Thanatos is the opposite of this eros and it seeks to push a person towards inanimate stage (Freud, 2015). Freud states that the humans have an innate desire of self destruction and often want to move towards the extinction stage. In this Thanatos instinct the people seek out to reach the stage of inanimate stage. This Thanatos is the notion of self-destructive emotions. The people also have a desire of repeating old habits (Freud, 2015). This could be destructive or for self-preservation. One of the habits is fixation.