正如Hofstede(2007)所提到的，價值觀被認爲是每一種文化的基本基礎。它對人們的偏好，以及他們定義不道德和道德的方式，以及爲整個社會的人們建立心理規劃，都有重大影響。由於人與人之間的關係與價值觀有着密切的關係，管理受到文化價值觀的嚴重影響(Alyousif et al.， 2010)。除此之外，不同國家、不同社會的文化價值觀也存在差異，且具有較高的恆定範圍。正因爲如此，Hofstede(2007)認爲管理是文化的重要組成部分，它在不同的社會中具有關鍵的差異，但在不同的社會中維持穩定。
中國的領導人一直遵循家長式的管理風格，這種風格描繪了巨大的權力距離(Warner, 2014)。這一點在幾乎所有的組織中都很明顯，特別是在國有組織中。他們被認爲是高度正規化和官僚主義的，關鍵的努力是促進自我管理，幾乎不鼓勵員工賦權(Behrens, 2009)。另一方面，瑞典經理人的管理風格對新理念和創新有着巨大的鼓勵作用，企業在研發領域的投資傾向也很大(Zabihi, 2013)。瑞典的管理人員通過對每一種情況進行深入的評估，努力避免風險。無論是衝突還是衝突的解決，瑞典的管理者都遵循雙贏的談判模式，爲在相互尊重和尊嚴的基礎上解決問題做出了重要努力。
It has been highlighted by a number of researchers that styles of management and leadership are different from nation to nation. As a thesis statement for this research, there are a number of similarities in how there is conducting of business, but there is a diverse cultural influence on management styles of different nations. As technologies have progressed, with increased globalization of higher scope of mobility, political changes and market, there has been a significant impact on the styles of management in several nations and culture (Zabihi, 2013).
The aim of this essay is to evaluate the extent to which national culture impacts styles of management. For this purpose, comparison will be done between the cultures of China and Sweden in terms of their management styles.
Management Style of China
Management Style of Sweden
Cultural Influence on Management Styles
As mentioned by Hofstede (2007), values have been identified as the fundamental base of each and every culture. It has a major impact on the preferences of people, and the way they define immorality and morality, and build mental program for people across the society. As relationships between people have close correlation with the value, management is severely affected by cultural values (Alyousif et al., 2010). In addition to this, there are differences in cultural values from nation to nation and society to society with higher scope of being constant. Because of this reason, it was believed by Hofstede (2007) that management which is a crucial element of culture, has key differences across societies but with the maintenance of stability across societies.
As mentioned previously, the cultural values of China have been identified as significant factors for the creation of distinguished managerial practice of China. There are strong fundamental bases of moral ethics and practical teaching with the structure of organization being hierarchical. On the other hand, in Sweden, the structure followed by organization is horizontal. Flat structure has been nurturing full participation and involvement across each and every employee of the organization (Lauring, 2010). Hence, in Sweden, subordinates show willingness in sharing their opinions and knowledge, while contributing in the process of decision making. However, in case of China, subordinates do not hold the authority of questioning the decisions made by the superiors as this expresses disrespect.
The leaders of China have been following the paternalistic style of management that depicts large distance of power (Warner, 2014). This is evident across almost all organization, specifically in the state- owned organization. They have been identified as strongly formalized and bureaucratic, with key efforts put in for advancing in self-management and barely encouraging the empowerment of employees (Behrens, 2009). On the other hand, there is huge encouragement of new idea and innovations by the management style of Swedish managers, with huge tendency among firms for making investment in the section of Research and Development (Zabihi, 2013). Managers of Sweden make major efforts in avoiding risk by conducting in-depth assessment of every situation. For conflicts and their resolution, the managers of Sweden can be seen following the model of win-win negotiation with key efforts put in for resolving issue in mutual dignity and respect.
Overall, it can be stated that there is huge difference in the cultural values of Chinese and Swedish, creating major differences in their management styles and approaches.
This essay has referred to the management style of Chinese and Swedish organizations and managers for evaluating the extent to which national culture impacts management style. Major differences have been identified in the management styles in terms of social norms, cultural values, and leadership style. In Sweden, subordinates are given the authority of stating their opinions and knowledge in the process of decision making, while the same is considered disrespectful in China. Hence, this helps in proving the thesis statement that there is a diverse cultural influence on management styles of different nations.