The notion of cognition is associated with the mental activity and behaviour of the people. This cognitive ability enables people to learn about perception, memory and also influences the critical analysis of the issues. These cognitive development of children is influenced by the biological, experimental and thinking abilities (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). Piaget suggested the theory of cognitive development understanding the nuances of the cognitive development of the children. This is found to be the fundamental tenet in the language learning process. According to the ideology of Piaget, the children continually seek out to reach information and have a basic tendency to adapt to their environment. There are many in born reflexes that enable the people to learn about the languages. This learning process in the child is divided into four unique periods. The Sensorimotor Period is between 0 to 2 Years, and Preoperational Period is between 2 to 7 years. Piaget stand that there is maximum cognitive development and understanding of the world or the surrounding environment between these years. From the ages of 7 to 11 Yeats, there is the development of concrete operation and between the ages of 11 to 12, there is the development of formal operation of the child (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). Piaget noted that this development varied based on the culture and the local family environment of the children. The flaw with this theory is that there is assumption made that cognitive development occurs in stages and in a systematic manner (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). Vygotsky’s Socio cultural theory discusses the nuances of culture on the development of the child. The children are found to internalize their thought process with their interactions with the social environment. There is the role of the language acquisition that occurs in these stages. The Zone of Proximal Development of Vygotsky’s theory states that the best optimal level where there is maximum growth in the intellectual abilities. In this development, the role of the language plays an important role in the cognitive development (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). The children use social speech, inner speech and their ego centric speech to community with the world around them. They formulate thought process and their intellectual functions based on this thought process.