美国代写被抓:公司估值

美国代写被抓:公司估值

拥有无形资产的公司通常通过使用不同形式的股权来选择管理层薪酬。基于服务的组织以公平的方式补偿管理层,而不是利用其他选项。这一特别的步骤可以直接与以下事实相关联:这些公司将人力资本视为其最大和最有价值的资产,而采取这些步骤是为了保留公司的人力资源。因此,该公司必须对规范的薪酬方式作出补偿,这种薪酬方式可以很容易地计算出来,并选择相当创新、具有挑战性和令人满意的方式来支付管理层的薪酬。

有许多不同的方法可以克服这些挑战。这些问题的根源在于会计,解决之道也在于会计制度本身。一些经营费用可以归类为资本费用(Trugman, 2007)。消费品公司可以将广告费用资本化,而服务相关公司的人力资源费用可以资本化。然而,基本的概念是,要将费用资本化,必须在多个会计期间收集此类费用的收益。如果虔诚地遵循这一概念,就可以避免将两个主要领导的开支分开,而同样的开支不适用于少数公司和公司的主要挑战之一。在这种情况下,可以遵循三个步骤。第一步是找出某一特定费用的收益流动的时期,如果该费用大于1,则将其资本化。为了估计权益和资本的回报,也应该确认这种费用所产生的资产。所创造的资产应当摊销,而营业费用应当据此调整。

影响拥有大量无形资产的公司的另一个突出挑战是,管理层往往以股权期权的形式获得报酬,而不是现金或现金等价物。这背后的原因是为了增加管理层的兴趣,因为他们也是公司的股东。然而,在这种情况下,主要原因恰好是他们的现金匮乏的状况,他们保护不捞出财务薪酬。因此,当需要计算全部股权时,原始股东和管理层构成两组索赔人。有三种不同的股票估值方法,在这种情况下,需要探索最适合业务性质的期权。由于准确计算权益资本是很重要的,会计人员应该重视这部分,并以最适当的方式处理这种情况。稀释股票法和库存股票法是不准确的方法,在这种情况下很少使用。修改后的期权定价模型需要用于评估股权期权。需要考虑的不只是过去或现在的股票期权。事实上,普通股在某一特定日期的价值应该在过去和现在的基础上计算。普通股的价值应根据过去授予的期权和将来可能授予的可预见期权进行调整。

美国代写被抓:公司估值

Firms with intangible assets often opt for management compensation by making use of different forms of equity. Instead of making use of other options, service based organizations compensate the management in terms of equity. This particular step can be directly correlated to the fact that these firms value human capital as their biggest and most valuable asset and such steps are taken to retain human resources in the company. The company, as such, has to make amends to normative ways of compensation which can be accounted for easily and opt for rather innovative, challenging and satisfying ways to remunerate the management.

There are different ways in which these challenges can be overcome. Since these problems stem from accounting, the solution also lies in the system of accounting itself. A few operating expenses can be classified as capital expenses (Trugman, 2007). A consumer products company could capitalize advertising expenses whereas HR expenses in a service related firm could be capitalized. The underlying concept, however, is that for an expense to be capitalized, it is necessary that the benefits of such an expense are gathered over multiple accounting periods. If this concept is followed religiously, one of the major challenges of segregating expenditures under the two broad heads and the same being inappropriate for few companies and firms can be averted. A three-step process can be followed in this case. The first step is to find out the period during which the benefit of the particular expense would flow and capitalize the same if it is more than one. In order to estimate the returns on equity and capital, the asset created by such an expense should also be recognized. The created asset should be amortized whereas the operating expense should be adjusted against it.

The other prominent challenge that affects firms with significant intangible assets is that the management tends to get remuneration in terms of equity options and not cash or cash equivalents. The reason behind this is to increase the interest of the management as they are stockholders of the company as well. However, the main reason in the case of such firms happens to be their cash-poor condition which they protect by not fishing out finances in remuneration. As such, the original stockholders and the management constitute two sets of claimholders when the entire equity needs to be calculated. There are three different methods for valuing shares and that option which best suits the nature of business needs to be explored in this case. Since it is important that the equity capital is calculated accurately, accountants should give emphasis on this part and deal with the situation in the most appropriate way. The diluted stock method and the treasury stock method are not accurate ways and are seldom used in such cases. Modified option pricing models need to be used for valuing the equity options. It is not just the past or the present equity options that need to be considered. In fact, the value of common shares at a given date should be computed on the basis of both the past and the present. The value of common shares should be adjusted for options granted in the past and those foreseeable option grants that would occur in the future.