美国论文查重:历史上的语言和社会群体的起源

美国论文查重:历史上的语言和社会群体的起源

虽然希伯来语的起源和使用,以及希伯来语作为官方语言的提议,都是由五月花的成员到美国来的,但这门语言的真正起源是在公元前二世纪的以色列。它是从公元前14世纪和13世纪的文本中发现的,在迦南的以色列部落使用了希伯来语。尽管早期的文本表明了这种用法,但在历史上,希伯来语被认为是一种合适的口语和文学语言,而在公元前587年,耶路撒冷的陷落是其特征。圣经版本的希伯来语实际上是一种文学语言,在公元前1006年和公元前587年被认为是一种非常普遍的方言。耶路撒冷的陷落导致了现在被称为巴比伦流亡的人,这种放逐本质上是可能导致语言从更主要的形式消失的原因。圣经中希伯来语的形式之所以能流传下来,是因为死海古卷和其他同时期的文学作品。圣经的某些章节使用了更古老的希伯来语,一些人使用了更晚的版本,表明了与在流放时期失去的前古典版本的不同之处。圣经希伯来语因此在完整的学习中迷失了方向,而保存在古典希伯来语中的词汇则只有8000左右。这不能被用来理解或评估一种合适的语言。尽管最初的评估可能是在耶路撒冷的陷落没有发生的情况下进行的,但在语言方面,仍然有一些事实是明确的。首先,希伯来语确实来自迦南语。语言中有许多特殊的元素,其中一些是在希伯来语中被观察到的。有一些对阿拉姆祖先的影射,一些研究人员甚至对这种语言进行了介绍,以了解希伯来语的词根是如何帮助区分语言的语言学和迦南语的。然而,在语言使用的进化过程中,让人很难理解希伯来语的原因是它并不是一个同质的语言系统。在一个同构的语言系统中,可以将语言隔离到不同的层中。对于希伯来语来说,迦南的层应该是最顶端的。阿卡德人的影响和亚拉姆语和闪族的影响被认为是较低的层次。另一方面,希伯来语是一种被称为错误的语言,或者是一种混合的语言。在混合形式中,层不能很容易区分。然而,mischsprache也受到了挑战,因为它有可能在希伯来语中识别出一些古代亚拉姆语的痕迹。阿拉姆语的成分确实在圣经希伯来语的音韵学、形态和词汇中被识别出来。因此,对希伯来语的地理和时间的影响已经被确定。尽管有这些影响,但有人认为,圣经中的希伯来语在耶路撒冷陷落之后,它的衰落可能会以另一种形式复活,叫做拉比希伯来语。多年以后,其他外语开始对语言产生了强烈的影响。

美国论文查重:历史上的语言和社会群体的起源

While the origins and use of Hebrew and the proposal of Hebrew as the official language came with the members of the Mayflower to America, the actual origin of the language lies in Israel in the second millennium BCE. It was identified from texts that in the 14th and 13 centuries of the BCE, Israelite tribes in the Canaan used Hebrew. Although early texts indicate this use, Hebrew was identified in history as a proper spoken and literary language only in 587 BCE characterized by the fall of Jerusalem. The Biblical version of Hebrew was in fact a literary language that was spoken as a very common dialect during 1006 and 587 BCE. The Fall of Jerusalem led to what is now called as the Babylonian exile and this exile in essence is what could have caused the disappearance of the language from its more dominant form. The biblical forms of Hebrew survived because of the dead sea scrolls and other literature of the same era. Some sections of the Bible make use of this more archaic Hebrew and some makes use of a more later version indicating the differences with the former classical version that was lost during the period of the exile. Biblical Hebrew hence was quite lost for complete study and the lexical items that are preserved of the classical Hebrew are only around 8,000. This could not be held to understand or assess a proper language. Despite the original assessment that could have been made probable if the Fall of Jerusalem had not happened, some facts are still clearly established when it comes to the language. Firstly, it is established that Hebrew is indeed from the Canaanite language. There are many peculiar elements identified with the language and some of them are observed in the case of Hebrew. There are some allusions made to Aramaean ancestors and some researchers have even introspected the language for understanding how Hebrew roots can be useful for distinguishing the linguistics of the language from the genera Canaanite languages. However, what made it difficult to understand Hebrew in its evolution of linguistic usages was that it was not a homogeneous linguistic system. In a homogeneous linguistic system, it would have been possible to segregate the language into different layers. For Hebrew, the Canaanite layer would have been at the top. The Akkadian influences and the Aramaic and Semitic influences would have been seen as lesser layers. Hebrew, on the other hand, is what is called a Mischsprache or a hybrid form of language. In the hybrid form, the layers cannot be easily distinguished. However, the mischsprache has also been challenged because it was possible to identify some traces of ancient Aramaic in Hebrew. Aramaic components are indeed identified in the phonology, morphology and lexicon of biblical Hebrew. A geography and time based influence on Hebrew has hence been identified. Despite these affects, it is contended that Biblical Hebrew which saw its decline after the fall of Jerusalem might have revived in the other form called as Rabbinic Hebrew. Later over the years, other foreign languages started to have a strong impact on the language.