美国营销学论文代写:民主运动

美国营销学论文代写:民主运动

民主运动留下了一段斗争的轨迹,有些是为不同的民主理想而进行的公开斗争,有些是阻止政府采取反民主立场的更为微妙的运动和斗争。在上个世纪的中国历史上,有两种不同的民主运动对中国的政治事业产生了影响。1978年和1989年的民主运动及其参与者、所达成的目标、方法和结果对该国及其公民产生了强烈的影响。1978年的民主运动是在毛泽东身体不好的时候发起的,1976年毛泽东逝世推动了民主运动。在那个时候,他的大多数追随者都被迫为自己的理想负责。就在这位领导人病重的时候,成千上万的示威者聚集在北京天安门广场,挑战当时的共产党领导层。他们支持中国已故总理周恩来。由此产生了一种政治势头。即使在1976年毛去世后,四人帮被解散,但也遭到了清洗。邓领导的新一届领导班子导致了对“四人帮”的更多公开攻击,并引发了针对毛本人的抗议活动。一项旨在给予言论自由、通信自由、新闻行动、示威等更多自由的宪法是其中的核心。由此形成了一个新的民主平台。正如当时的媒体所言,它是群众行动的产物。北京的知识分子会聚集在民主墙周围表达他们的支持,在那里他们发布新的信息,或者支持性的信息,甚至是诗歌等等,来表达他们的赞同和鼓励他人。这是一个有趣的举动,因为他们能够以这种方式鼓励人们,并确保势头不会丧失。这也很有趣,因为到目前为止,人们确实倾向于寻找某种形式的象征或有纪律的集会来进行抗议。这篇文章的目的是双重的,它不仅试图理解1978年的民主运动,也试图理解1989年民主斗争继续后发生了什么。1989年的民主运动起源于学生运动。这更像是一场学生抗议活动,学生活动人士想走上街头纪念五四运动,示威活动一直持续到米哈伊尔•戈尔巴乔夫1989年访问俄罗斯。戈尔巴乔夫是一个民主主义者,学生们想在这个时候把他们的不满清单提交给政府审查和注意。在这段时间里,作为一种不满,人们提出的主要担忧之一是,中国的民主化进程与其他国家的民主化进程有多么不同。在其他国家,民主化进程被认为是与市场改革同时进行的,市场改革大大提高了该国的生产力。但是,这种在东欧等国蓬勃发展的市场改革形式在中国却没有。学生们实际上认为他们在倒退,这就是民主运动背后的原因。此时,胡耀邦之死被示威者抓住,他们称其为通过批评活着的人来哀悼死者的计划。这篇研究论文认为,虽然1989年的民主运动与1978年的民主运动的目标不同,但两者都反映了民主运动需要改革,这使它们更符合西方国家的民主理想。

美国营销学论文代写:民主运动

Democracy movements have left behind a trail of struggles, some of which are open struggles for the different ideals of democracy and some others are more subtle movements and struggles that keep governments from adopting anti-democratic stances. In Chinese history of the last century, two different democracy movements are observed which had an impact on its political undertakings. The democracy movements of 1978 and 1989, its participants, the objectives reached, the methods and outcomes had a strong impact on the country and its citizens. The beginning of the democracy movement of 1978 was initiated during a time when Mao Zedong was in ill health and later his death in 1976 propelled the movement. This was a time when most of his followers were thrust out into a situation where they had to take charge for their ideals. Even as the leader was severely ill, tens and thousands of demonstrators at that time gathered in Beijing Tiananmen Square in order to challenge the Communist party leadership at that time. They supported the China’s late premier Chou En-Lai. A political momentum was created. Even as they were dispersed in 1976, after Mao died, the Gang of four was purged. A new leadership under Deng led to more public attacks on the Gang of Four and protests started against Mao itself. A constitution that aimed to grant freedom of speech, freedom in correspondence, press actions, demonstration and more was at the core of them. Thus a new platform of democracy was formed at this time. As was claimed in media of that time, it was one that was born out of the action of the masses. Beijing intellectuals would gather to show their support around the democracy wall where they posted fresh information, or supportive information, maybe even poems and more to show their approval and to encourage others. This was an interesting act given that they were able to encourage people this way and also ensure the momentum was not lost. It is also interesting, as till date people do tend to search for some form of symbol or rallying with discipline in order to conduct protests. Now the purpose of this essay is twofold in that it does not only seek to understand the democracy movements of 1978 but also what happened in the aftermath in 1989 as democracy struggles continued. The democracy movement of 1989 had its origins in student activism. This was more of a student protest in which student activists wanted to take to the streets to commemorate the May 4th movement and the demonstration was to go on until Mikhail Gorbachev arrived in the country for his visit on 1989. Gorbachev was a democratizer and the students wanted to bring up their list of grievances under government scrutiny and notice at this time. One of the main concerns raised during this time as a grievance was how China’s democratization process was much different from what was happening in other countries. In other countries, the democratization process was seen to go hand in hand with market reform which increased the country’s productivity to a great deal. However, this form of market reform which was thriving in countries such as Eastern Europe was missing in China. The students in fact believed that they were going backwards and this was the reason behind the democracy movement. At this time, the death of Hu Yaobang was seized by the demonstrators as they called it a plan to mourn the dead by criticizing the living. The research essay argues that while the democracy movements of 1989 differ in their objectives of the democracy movements of 1978, both reflect the need for reform in democracy movements which made them more streamlined to the democratic ideals of the western nations.