This is because the action in rem in procedural principle already solves the need to establish liability against the right defendant. In the procedural principles, the establishment of ownership or more specifically the evidence required to establish ownership could be challenging. Also, there can be some dilemmas when making a claim in the context of jurisdiction or for third party interests.Consider the challenges that are present in the case of the personification theory when one considers the nature of maritime liens. The first problem is that of how the owner is taken out of the legal picture. The claims are made on the ship and not on the person.
When the plaintiff files a claim on a ship whose owner is in another country and not the same as the plaintiff then the jurisdiction might not be favourable to plaintiff. This is especially so since the owner is not connected to the liability in Rem. The vessel that has been secured and arrested might not have much of a salvage value in itself. Then the plaintiff is at a loss because of the limitation in liability. Extent of liability in the case of the personification theory is reduced. Similarly, the personification theory could also lead to issues where there is prosecution applied wrongly. For instance, in the personification theory, since the ship is given more importance compared to the owner, there are chances where an innocent third party could be arrested here.
A ship might have been sold to someone else and the write in rem would not directly trail back to the person responsible here. A third party or the plaintiff themselves will hence have to face the charges for recovery. Challenges associated with the arrest will also have to be borne by the plaintiff in such a scenario. The procedural principle of action in rem would be more suitable in the scenario of maritime liens. Compared with personification theory, the procedural principle is also more effective. Its inherent design is to bring out the actual beneficial owner. In the case of the personam, the ship is given more importance over the owner. The actual defendant is identified and it becomes more proper when actions are initiated with the procedural principle.