During Weimar’s time in 1920, The Sommerfeld House was a great example for the expressionism. Since this was the first time that Gropius combined all types of arts into one architecture2. For this production, wood was chosen as the main material of the architecture and the glasses were used for the windows. From inside to outside, the building was found to contain many ideas that were developed from the original concept of the Bauhaus. In this, there was observation of the people working together to create projects with all crafts that finally came into architecture2.
By carving the beams and stairs, Joost Schmidt incorporated sculptural elements into the house. He also used arts and crafts approach to design the decoration of the stairs. Marcel Breuer was responsible for the furniture of the house. This was used with wood and leather to create chairs. However, at a later stage, he changed the style into constructivism and achieved a great accomplishment in other projects. As one of the most influential teachers, Johannes Itten designed the form, direction and rhythm of the house. Martin Jahn designed angular lines and light wood engraving for showing expressionism11. Without the spirit of the Bauhaus, The Sommerfeld House could not achieve such a great success of combining different types of arts. However, the Bauhaus shifted a high change in design concepts a few years later.
In 1921, famous Dutch artist and member of “De Stiji” Theo van Doesburg were shocked by the concept of the Bauhaus during his visiting trip in Weimar. He gave a speech to the Bauhaus students about the idea of constructivism. There was strong critique to this newer modality of the expressionism as well as the craft-based spirits of the Bauhaus. According to him, constructivism was style based on idea of logic, order and function2. Constructivist believed that artist must work in factory to serve for the new society. These ideas implied that meant designers must focus more on the functionality of the project rather than mere appearance. The original idea of creating appearance-based art pieces needs to be abandoned and mass-production must replace the handicrafts8. The constructivism greatly influenced on the traditional concept taught in Bauhaus. It was the initial period that Gropius started to change the idea from unity work and handcrafts into an industrial and mechanical approach12.