商业文章代写:巴甫洛夫和操作性条件反射

商业文章代写:巴甫洛夫和操作性条件反射

巴甫洛夫和操作性条件反射增加了依赖性和抗药性。依赖性指的是增加对物质的生理需求,以达到一定的效果。耐受性是指由于反复接触而降低对药物的敏感性。对药物的耐受性可以被限制在被消费的环境中。操作性条件作用在酒精耐受中起着重要的作用。被滥用药物所激发的行为被认为是由下丘脑神经元介导的。Endocannabinoid系统是一种与药物成瘾有关的神经生物学机制。他们参与了作为复发机制基础的过程(Maldonado、Valverde和Berrendero,2006年)。

商业文章代写:巴甫洛夫和操作性条件反射

巴甫洛夫和操作性条件作用已被用于药物的治疗。行为矫正被用来治疗有害的行为。提示暴露疗法是基于巴甫洛夫条件反射的原理。环境因素被认为是条件刺激。戒瘾是建立在灭绝的基础上的。灭绝是指条件刺激在没有无条件刺激的情况下呈现的过程。它会导致条件反射减弱并最终消失。在提示疗法中,环境提示是反复出现的,没有非条件刺激,即物质。这导致了环境线索的减少,从而引起了人们的渴望。厌恶疗法是巴甫洛夫条件反射的另一种应用,它可以在酒精成瘾的情况下使用。治疗师通过巴甫洛夫条件反射的原理,形成酒精与恶心或呕吐之间的联系。然而,厌恶疗法的效果是短期的。治疗师可能使用认知行为疗法治疗上瘾(奥托,奥克利里格和波拉克,2007)。操作性条件作用对药物的使用是有效的。主要的原则是奖励健康的行为(奖励必须是实质性的)。社区强化和家庭培训疗法(工艺)是基于操作性条件作用的。工艺疗法在治疗酒精使用障碍方面卓有成效(伯杰、布朗迪诺、费雪、格里瑟和加巴特,2016)。

商业文章代写:巴甫洛夫和操作性条件反射

pavlovian and operant conditioning have led to increased dependency and drug tolerance. Dependency refers to increased physiological need for substance to achieve certain results. Tolerance refers to decreased sensitivity to the drug as a result of repeated exposure. Tolerance to the drug can be conditioned to the environment where it is consumed. Operant conditioning plays an important role in alcohol tolerance. Behaviour motivated by drugs of abuse is thought to be mediated by hypothalamic neurons. Endocannabinoid system is neurobiological mechanism that is involved in drug addiction. They are involved in process that underlie relapse mechanism (Maldonado, Valverde and Berrendero, 2006).

商业文章代写:巴甫洛夫和操作性条件反射

Pavlovian and operant conditioning have been used for treatment of substance use. Behaviour modification is used to treat harmful behaviours. Cue exposure therapy is based on principles of pavlovian conditioning. The environmental cues are considered as conditioned stimulus. De-addiction is based on the extinction. Extinction is the process where the conditioned stimulus is presented without unconditioned stimulus. It causes the conditioned response to weaken and eventually disappear. In cue therapy, environmental cues are presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus that is substance. This results in decrease in the capacity of environmental cues to elicit craving. Aversion therapy is another application of pavlovian conditioning which can be used in case of alcohol addiction. The therapist forms association between alcohol and nausea or vomiting through principle of pavlovian conditioning. However, the effect of aversion therapy is short term. The therapist may use cognitive behaviour therapy to treat addiction (Otto, O’Cleirigh and Pollack, 2007). Operant conditioning is effective in treating substance use. The main principle is to reward healthy behaviour (reward must be substantial). Community Reinforcement and Family Training therapy (CRAFT) is based on operant conditioning. CRAFT therapy has been effective in treating alcohol use disorder (Berger, Brondino, Fisher, Gwyther, and & Garbutt, 2016).