Diaries are also qualitative data collection technique. Employees maintain diary or record of all the activities that they perform during a month. Diaries help track employee performance. They are useful tools as they provide detailed qualitative description of motives and perspectives. Different perspectives can be compared using diary. Some business researchers also use observations where they observe employees while performing their jobs. Researcher can observe either directly or through screen. They may videotape behaviour and use it for analysis in future.
Critical incident technique is used to recognize behaviour that leads to success or failure of individual or firm in a situation. The employees are asked to recall their past performance on similar situation. In auto-ethnography, the researcher describes and analyses personal experience of the situation systematically (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Jackson, 2015).
Once the data collection tools are decided, research sample is decided. Sampling can be random sampling or non-random sampling. In random sampling, every member has equal probability of getting selected in sample. In non-random sampling, the sample is chosen as per researcher’s convenience.
Different approaches to qualitative analysis combine distinct frames, such as a focus on discourse or sense-making, with a set of methods and techniques for interpreting and comparing data, and for building and testing theories. Several techniques are used for data analysis. Content analysis refers to drawing inferences from the data which is present in the form of ideas or concepts. Grounded analysis involves seven steps: familiarization, reflection, open coding, conceptualization, focused re-coding, linking, re-evaluation. Other methods are argument analysis, narrative analysis, computer aided analysis, etc. (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Jackson, 2015).