The scanning electron microscope was first utilized in the year 1937. It is based on several fundamental principles of physics which employs the presence of secondary electrons, backscattered electrons and simple current and transmitted electrons, cathodoluminesence and characteristics x-rays. The document consists of an elaboration on the various theories of imaging contrasts, the components of spatial resolution of secondary electrons and how they affect the concurrent resolution of the resultant image. The various working specifications of the spatial resolution criteria is also discussed in detail. Furthermore, the element of backscattered electrons and their effects on x-ray imaging techniques has been thoroughly discussed. The introduction of scanning electron microscopes is followed by experimental analysis and a section of results which comprises of various specimen sample pictures taken to provide illustrative examples of the principles explained. The discussion forum following the results section analyzes the various effects of physical characteristics such as the working distance and effect of voltage on the image quality and resolution.