論文代寫:性別與性別認同

論文代寫:性別與性別認同

一個健康的社會需要實行平均主義。然而,這在現實中是不可能的。性別和性別是劃分人羣的主要因素之一(Oakley, 2015)。要理解社會的細微差別,就必須從根本上理解性別、性別和性別認同。斯托勒(1964)認爲,性別和性別受解剖學、微觀家庭環境和社會解釋的生物力量的影響。在社會中,術語“性”和“性別”是可以互換使用的,但要理解這兩者之間的根本區別,還需要更多的啓發(Rubin, 2009)。性別、性別和性別認同之間有着錯綜複雜的關係。性別概念被定義爲通過社會公認的生物學標準將人劃分爲男性和女性而做出的決定。性別的分類是通過運用解剖學、生理學和激素的概念來完成的。研究發現,在社會中,性別感知感知到性別意識形態(Delphy, 2009)。解剖學上是男性的人不一定是男性。但是一個人的性別對一個人的基本性別認同有很大的影響(Unger, 1979)。性別識別不是基於解剖學,而是基於對性別構成的基本認識。然而,性別的定義更爲複雜,它可以廣義地定義爲社會對男性或女性性別構成的認知(Unger and Crawford, 1993)。這是基於人們的集體觀念。齊默爾曼和韋斯特(1987)認爲,社會實際上需要遵循三種不同的分類。它們是性別、性別和性別類別。他們指出,性別和性別只是社會認可的標準,除了解剖學的固有因素。他們認爲所有這些方面都是相對的,並基於社會公認的意識形態和內涵。齊默爾曼和韋斯特考慮的另一個因素是,這些性別、性別和身份的分類是基於對社會和個人行爲的規範認知。個體的概念和身體語言決定了社會如何定義個體性別。對於個人性格如何形成的社會一致性,人們發現這些一致性得到了社會中有影響力的人的證實(West和Zimmerman, 1987)。在每個社會中,民粹主義的觀點都是由少數有影響力的人形成的。它們從根本上決定了社會應該如何看待性別和性別。社會固有的偏見是民粹主義羣體觀點的反映。研究發現,在社會中,人們虐待跨性別者的傾向越來越多(Burdge, 2007)。根據實證研究,這些關於性別和性別差異的偏見和錯誤觀念可以通過教育媒介來改變。根據Miller(2010)的觀點,社會中的偏見和固有問題可以通過爲他們提供基於同理心和對形勢動態的理解來形成決策的工具來改變。隨着新的社會解放理論的出現,後現代主義關於跨性別羣體的觀點存在着內在的鬥爭(McPhail, 2008)。需要解決的根本問題是社會中錯誤的性別刻板印象,以確保社會中存在平等主義(Turner, 2007)。在處理社會中性別認同問題時,需要新的理論和全面的方法。

論文代寫:性別與性別認同

For a healthy society there needs to be egalitarianism practiced. Nevertheless it is not possible in reality. One of the major factors that have been used to stratify people is gender and sex ( Oakley, 2015). Owing to understand the nuances of the society there should be fundamental understanding of sex, gender and gender identity. According to Stoller (1964), gender and sex are influenced by anatomy, micro familial environment and the socially construed biological forces. Terms sex and gender are used interchangeable in the societies but there is a lot more heuristics that are required to understand the fundamental difference between the two (Rubin, 2009). Sex, gender and gender identity has convoluted and intricate relationships. Notions of sex have been defined as the determination made through socially agreed biological criteria for classifying people as male and female. The classification of the sexes is made through applying concepts of anatomy, physiology and hormones. It has been found that in the society the gender perception perceives the ideology of sex (Delphy, 2009). People who are anatomically male need not be a person of the male gender. But the sex of a person has a big impact of a person in determining their basic gender identity (Unger, 1979). Gender identification is not based on anatomy it is based on the fundamental perception as to what constitutes gender. Definition of gender is however more complex it can be broadly defined as the perception held by the society as to what constitutes male or female gender (Unger and Crawford, 1993). This is based on the collectivistic perception of the people. Zimmerman and West (1987) contended that there are actually three different classifications that need to be followed in the societies. They are sex, gender and sex category. They state that gender and sex are only socially agreed criteria apart from the inherent factor of anatomy. They consider all of these aspects to be relative and are based on the socially agreed ideologies and connotation. Another factor that was considered by Zimmerman and West was that these classifications of sex, gender and identity are based on the normative perception of the societies and the individual behavior. The notion and body language of the individuals determine how the society defines the individual gender. For the societal conformities regarding how the individual character has been built it has been found that they are confirmed by the influencers in the society (West, and Zimmerman, 1987). In every society the populist opinion is formed by the perception of few influencers. They fundamentally determine how the society should perceive the gender and sex. Inherent bias in the societies is reflections of the views held by the populist groups. It has been found that in the societies there are has been more tendencies for the people to mistreat the transgender in the societies (Burdge, 2007). According to empirical research it has been proven that these bias and faulty perceptions regarding the differential views of gender and sex can be changed by mediums of education. According to Miller (2010) perception, bias and inherent issues in the society can be changed by providing them with the tools to form decisions based on empathy and understanding of the dynamics of the situation. There has been an inherent struggle in the post modernism views regarding the transgender community along with new social liberation theories (McPhail, 2008). The fundamental issue that needs to be addressed is the faulty gender stereotypes in the society to ensure that there is egalitarianism in the society (Turner, 2007) there is a need for new theory and a comprehensive approach in dealing with the identification of gender in the societies.