美国博士申请:可持续消费行为

美国博士申请:可持续消费行为

介绍

消费者行为的意义是为了满足欲望而选择、购买和利用物品和服务。有几个程序可以帮助做出消费者行为的决定。首先,买方试图寻找适合自己需求的商品,然后选择保证其更高有效性的商品(Jain, Taylor and Culligan, 2013)。一旦选择了商品和服务,客户就会评估他能花在所需商品/服务上的资金。最后,顾客通过与竞争品牌的商品进行比较,来评估商品的价格。

影响消费者行为的因素

影响消费者购买行为的因素有很多,比如个人、文化、社会和心理。

上述变量的描述如下:

1. 个人方面

2. 文化方面

基于文化的变量,如购买者的生活方式、亚文化和公共类别,深刻地影响着消费者行为。

生活方式是所有社区的要素,是满足每个人需求和行动的重要途径。文化操纵购买行为的能力因国家而异,因此营销经理在调查不同集会、地区或国家的文化价值时应极为谨慎。每一种文化都有不同的亚文化,如宗教信仰、民族、地域、民族聚会、部落等等。制定营销策略的战略家可以利用这些聚会,把整个市场分成许多小块。例如,营销团队可以根据目标区域聚会的需求创建对象/服务。

所有的社区都有不同类型的公共类别,这对营销团队来说是至关重要的,因为处于某个公共级别的人的购买行为是比较的。因此,营销练习可以根据社会排名定制(Gneezy和Rustichini, 2012)。需要注意的是,社会排名是由收入决定的;然而,还有其他方面,如财产,资格水平,职业等。

3.社会方面

此外,社会变量对消费者的购买行为也有影响。关键的社会因素是:参照人、亲戚、工作职责和地位。

“参照人”指的是那些有能力框定一个人的心理或行为状态的人。这些个体的影响因每一件物品和品牌的不同而不同,即显而易见的物品,如衣服、鞋子、汽车等,都会产生巨大的影响。这些人有能力根据自己使用相同品牌/物品的经验向买家提出建议。

购物者的行为受到他所属的家庭单位的明显影响。因此,营销团队必须期待发现配偶、父母和孩子的责任和控制力。如果一个物品的购买偏好受到妻子的影响,那么营销团队在策略上就会把重点放在女性身上(Fujii and rling, 2014)。在这种情况下,购买责任随着消费者生活方式的转变而变化。

每个人都是社会、家庭、群体等的一部分,有着不同的责任和地位。没有两个人在这些方面是相同的。比如,如果女性在公司里担任财务主管,她有两种责任,一种是工作,另一种是做母亲。因此,她的购物选择将控制她的责任和地位。

美国博士申请:可持续消费行为

Introduction

The meaning of Consumer behaviour is the selection, buying as well as utilization of the items and services for fulfilment of desires. There are several procedures that help in making decisions of the Consumer behaviour. First of all, the buyer attempts to look for the goods that would be suitable for his needs and then makes choice of the goods that assure them of higher effectiveness (Jain, Taylor and Culligan, 2013). Once the goods and services are chosen, the customer would assess the funds available with him, that he can spend for the desired commodity/ services. In the end, the customer assesses the commodity’s price in comparison to the commodities offered by its competing brands.

Factors that influence the consumer behaviour

There are many aspects that have impacts on the buying behaviours of consumer, for example, personal, cultural, social and psychological.

The description of the above mentioned variables is as underneath:

1. Personal aspects

2. Cultural aspects

The Consumer behaviour is profoundly affected by culture-based variables, for example, purchaser way of living, subculture, and communal category.

Way of living is the element of all communities and is the vital approach for everyone’s requirements and actions. The ability of culture to manipulate the purchasing behaviour differs from one nation to the other, and so the marketing managers should be extremely cautious in investigating the cultural values of diverse gatherings, areas or nations. Every culture has diverse subcultures, for example, religious convictions, nationalities, regions, ethnic gatherings, tribes and so on. The strategists who lay down the marketing strategy can make use of these gatherings by parting the whole market into many tiny segments. For instance, a marketing team can create objects/services as per the demands of a targeted regional gathering.

All the communities have various types of communal categories which are vital to the marketing teams, as the purchase behaviour of folks in a certain communal rank is comparative. Thus, marketing exercises could be customized as per social rankings (Gneezy and Rustichini, 2012). It is essential to note that social ranking is decided by earnings; yet, there are other aspects as well, as possessions, level of qualification, profession etc.

3. Social Aspects

Social variables additionally have an impact on the purchase behaviour of consumers. The critical social elements are: referencing people, relatives, job responsibility and standing.

Referencing People are the individuals who possess capability to frame an individual’s state of mind or behaviour. The effect of these individuals differs for every item and brands i.e. the evident items, for example, clothing, shoes, cars etc., have a huge impact. These people have ability to suggest the buyer from their own experiences of using the same brand/ item.

The shopper’s behaviour is emphatically affected by the family unit to which he belongs. So, marketing teams must look forward to discovering the responsibilities and controlling power of the spouse, parents and kids. In case the buying preference of an object is impacted by wife, then the marketing team will like to focus on the females in their strategies (Fujii and rling, 2014). In this case, the purchasing responsibilities vary with transforms in consumers’ ways of living.

Everyone is a part of community, family, group etc. and has dissimilar responsibility and standing. No two persons are same in these terms. Like, if female is functioning in a firm as finance head, she is possessing two responsibilities, one is of job and the other is of being a mother. Accordingly, her shopping choices will be in control of her responsibility and standing.