碩士論文代寫:功能主義理論

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14/04/2019

碩士論文代寫:功能主義理論

功能主義理論是迪爾凱姆提出的。他是功能主義理論的創始人。這一理論關注的是社會的需求以及教育如何幫助實現這些需求。根據功能主義理論,教育是將知識、技能和道德價值傳遞給下一代的過程。人們的道德價值觀念和社會動員使社會得以發展,使人們更加接近並一致地工作,而不受階級和信仰的歧視,以實現他們的目標。

功能主義理論強調教育的目的是支持核心價值和社會控制的轉移。在美國,以教育爲核心的社會價值觀是那些加強政治和經濟體系的價值觀。這兩個體系最初推動了教育體系的發展。因此,它在教育和政治經濟環境之間形成了一種相互呼應的體系。此外,功能主義理論注重培養學生的溝通、競爭和個性。因此,根據功能理論,高等教育系統中的所有個體都在努力維持平衡。

功能主義理論中的分層源於共同的價值觀。它建議,社會中的個人必須基於共同的價值觀進行評價,然後將其置於不同的等級。這種做法是必要的,以確保最合格和最熟練的個人在社會上擁有最好的職位。由於基於共同價值觀的分層,所有的個體都按照自己的資格發揮作用。功能主義理論表明,在分層的基礎上,人們可以通過努力工作和獲取知識來提升自己的社會地位。

衝突理論

衝突理論源於馬克思的思想。馬克思認爲,由於階級衝突,社會不斷地進行着社會動員,使社會成爲一個動態的社會結構。根據衝突理論,社會沉溺於對經濟穩定、金錢、地位和休閒等資源的競爭;而功能主義理論的競爭是建立在價值和知識技能的獲得的基礎上的。作爲功能理論,衝突理論主張對個體進行分類。然而,區別在於排序的概念。功能主義理論認爲,學生的分類是基於他們的優點和技能。而衝突理論認爲,教育機構的分類僅僅是基於種族和經濟的界限(Atkinson, 2014)。這種實踐在衝突理論中被稱爲隱性課程。

功能理論所解釋的分層系統被衝突理論所排斥。衝突理論表明,分層體系允許富人佔據高層職位,同時讓窮人變得遲鈍。窮人沒有得到足夠的機會去競爭,並在社會上取得自己的地位。衝突理論認爲,分層體系並沒有爲個人提供公平的分配,而是一個固定的博弈,在這個博弈中,富人還是富人,窮人還是窮人(Rubin, 2014)。衝突理論是建立在這樣一種觀念之上的:教育體系對工人階級起作用,使他們意識到他們將永遠留在下層社會。

碩士論文代寫:功能主義理論

The functionalist theory was proposed by Durkheim. He was the founder of the functionalist theory. This theory focuses on the needs of society and the ways in which education helps in fulfilling them. According to functionalist theory, education serves as the process of transferring knowledge, skills and moral values to the upcoming generation. The moral values and social mobilization of people enable the development of a society where people come closer and work homogenously without discrimination of class and creed to attain their goals.

The functionalist theory focuses on the purpose of education to support core values and transfer of social control. In US, the social values focused in education are those which strengthen political and economic system. These two systems originally fueled the system of education. Hence, it develops an echoed system between education and politico-economic environment. The functionalist theory, moreover, focuses on developing communication, competition and individualism of the students. Thus, according to functional theory, all individuals in the higher education system are struggling to maintain equilibrium.

Stratification in functionalist theory is derived from common values. It suggest that individuals in the society must be evaluated based on common values, and then placed on different ranks. This practice is necessary to assure that the most qualified and skilled individuals hold best positions in the society. As a result of stratification based on common values, all individuals perform roles in accordance with their qualification. Functionalist theory shows that on the basis of stratification, people can uplift their social status if the work harder and acquire knowledge.

The Conflict Theory

Conflict theory is derived from the ideas of Karl Marx. Marx suggests that the society is continually undergoing social mobilization due to class conflict, which makes the society a dynamic setup. According to conflict theory, the society is indulged in competition over resources such as economic stability, money, status and leisure; while the competition in functionalist theory was based on merit and attainment of knowledge and skills. As functional theory, conflict theory believes in sorting of individuals. However, the difference lies within the concept of sorting. Functionalist theory suggests that sorting of students is based on merit and skills. While conflict theory suggests that the sorting practiced in educational institutions is based merely aligned with ethnic and economic lines (Atkinson, 2014). This practice is termed as hidden curriculum in the conflict theory.

The stratification system explained by functional theory is rejected by conflict theory. Conflict theory shows that the stratification system allows placement of rich at the top positions while dulling the poor. Poor do not get sufficient chance to compete and make their position in the society. Conflict theory suggests that the stratification system instead of offering fair placement of individuals, it is a fixed game in which rich remains rich and poor remains poor (Rubin, 2014). Conflict theory is based upon the idea that the education system hidey works on the worker class to make them realize what they will always remain in the lower class.

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